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Basic components of the computer networks and Understanding

The basic components of the computer network and the sensebefore learning Mikrotik, is worth learning about the basics of the computer network itself later this science will be used also on the installation and use of Mikrotik. A computer network is a group of autonomous computers that are connected to each other, using a specific media and communication protocol, so it can share data and information. Computer networks allow the occurrence of more efficient communication between users(mail and teleconferences).
basic components of the computer network

Understanding Of Computer Networks

A computer network is a group of autonomous computers that are using communication protocols through the medium of communication that can share data, information, application programs and hardware devices such as printers, scanners, CD-Drive or hard drive and enables communication electronically.

While on the home user Applications, enabling more efficient communication between users (chat), an interactive entertainment more multimedia (games, videos, etc).

A router is a device that will parse the IP packets from one network to another network, using the method of addressing and protocol specific to parse the data package.

Understanding Router

A router is a device that has the ability to skip IP packets from one network to another network might have a lot of lines between them. Router-connected routers in a network the internet participate in a distributed routing algorithm to determine the best routes for the IP packets from system to system over another. The routing process is done on a hop by hop. The IP does not know the overall path towards the goals of each package. IP routing simply provides the IP address of the next router which he is closer to the destination host.
The Function Of The Router:
  • Read address to a logical ip address source/destination routing to determine & from a LAN to LAN others.
  • Save the routing table to determine the best route between the LAN to the WAN.
  • Devices in layer 3 OSI Layer.
  • Can be a “box” or an OS that run a routing daemon.
  • Interfaces Ethernet, Serial, ISDN BRI.

Understanding Operating System

The operating system is a set of software routines between application programs and hardware devices .The operating system has the task of managing all resources namely computer systems and as a service provider.

The operating system provides a System Call (in the form of functions or API = Application Programming Interface). System Call provides a high level abstraction for programming machine. System Call functions obviating the complexity of programming by giving it a set of instructions that is more easy and convenient, the operating system as well as a base for other programs where the application programs run above the operating system, programs that utilize the resources of the computer system by means of requesting the services of the operating system controls the resources for the application so that the use of the resources of the computer system can be carried out correctly and efficiently.

Operating systems that are known to include:

Windows (95, 98, ME, 2000, XP, VISTA, SERVER, Windows 7)

Linux (Red Hat, Slackware, Ubuntu, Fedora, Open SUSE, Debian, Mikrotik)
Bsd (Berkeley Software Distribution)
Macintosh (MAC OS, MAC OSX)
Classification Of Computer Networks:

LAN (Local Area Network) is a network of computers connected to a server computer by using a particular topology is typically used in the area of a building or area that the distance is no more than 1 km.

Man (Metropolitan Area Network) is a computer network that inter-connected in one area of the city which are can be more than 1 km. the option to build a computer network between offices in a city, the campus in one city.

Wan (Wide Area Network) is a network of computers that connect many LANS into one integrated network, between one network with other networks can be located thousands of kilometers or integral layout of geography by using certain communication methods.

Broadly speaking there are several stages in building a network LAN, among others;
  • Determine the type of network technology (Ethernet, Fast Ethernet, Token Ring, FDDI)
  • Select the model of the cabling (Fiber, UTP, Coaxial)
  • Determine the shape of the network topology (the Bus, Ring, and Star)
  • Determine technology Client/Server or Peer to Peer
  • Select a Server operating system (Windows NT, 2000, XP, or Linux)
Understanding Gateway
Gateway is a gateway exit the entry as data packets from the local network toward the outer network. Purpose is to make the client on the local network can communicate with the internet. Adjustable router becomes the Gateway where he became the liaison between the local network with the network.
Understanding Proxy Server

A Proxy Server is a facility to connect yourself to the internet simultaneously. The request user to Internet services (http, FTP, Telnet) and submit it in accordance with the policy. Acting as a gateway towards service. Represents a data packet from the inside and from the outside. Handles all internet communications – internal. Act as a gateway between internal and external machines. The proxy server evaluates and controls the request from the client, if appropriate policy is passed if not in the deny/drop. Using the method of NAT. Check the contents of packages.

Understanding Firewalls
A firewall is a security system that uses a device or system that is placed on the two networks with the primary function do filtering against access will go. Be a set of hardware or software, can also be a set of rules and procedures established by the organization. Firewall can also be referred to as a system or device that allows network traffic that it deems safe to pass through and prevent network traffic that is not secure. Generally a firewall implemented in a dedicated engine, which runs on the gateway (gateway) between your local network and other networks. The firewall is also commonly used to control access to anyone who has access to the private network from right outside. Today, the term firewall becomes a generic term that refers to the system that regulates the communication between two different networks.


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